Latin America

Exploring the Architecture of Panama: From Colonial to Contemporary

Panama City is a dynamic blend of old and new, where historic colonial buildings stand alongside modern skyscrapers. This article explores the city's architectural journey, highlighting key influences and significant landmarks.

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Panama City is a vibrant urban landscape where history and modernity coexist, revealing a rich tapestry of architectural evolution. The city’s streets and structures are the storytellers of its colonist past and its pivotal role in the global shipping industry. Let’s delve into the architecture of Panama City, tracing its journey from past to present.

Contemporary Panama City

Architecture of Panama

Today, Panama City is a dynamic metropolis that embraces modernism while honouring its colonial heritage. The skyline is dominated by a striking mix of restored colonial edifices and soaring skyscrapers. Notably, the city’s architectural landscape has expanded to include high-tech, organic, and minimalistic modern designs, attracting architects and designers from around the globe.

The BioMuseo, designed by renowned architect Frank Gehry, stands as a symbol of this modernist embrace. Its vibrant, overlapping panels stand in contrast to the city’s predominantly traditional structures. Located at the entrance of the Panama Canal, the museum’s design is a testament to Panama’s contemporary architectural ambitions.

The F&F Tower, colloquially known as “El Tornillo” (The Screw), is another modern marvel. This spiralling green glass skyscraper has become an iconic feature of the financial district’s skyline, exemplifying innovative Latin American architecture and earning the Emporis Skyscraper Award in 2011.

Colonial Influences

Panama City’s architectural heritage is heavily influenced by its colonial past. The Spanish colonisation period in the early 1500s laid the foundation for many of the city’s structures, which today exist as historic districts and prominent landmarks. These buildings reflect a significant Spanish influence—a direct result of the city’s growth during its time as a central hub in Spanish-colonised Central America.

Casco Viejo, the oldest part of Panama City and a UNESCO World Heritage site since 1997, epitomises the city’s colonial charm. It was built following the near-total destruction of the original Panama City, Panama Viejo, in 1671, when it was attacked by pirates. The area is renowned for its beautifully restored colonial buildings, alongside early 20th-century Art Nouveau structures that emerged during the economic boom following the Panama Canal’s construction.

Within Casco Viejo lies La Iglesia de la Merced, dating back to 1680. This church, with its dark stone façade and elaborate design, is one of the city’s oldest and most significant buildings. As a treasured historical site, the church rarely opens its doors to preserve its structure.

The Plazas of Casco Viejo—Plaza de la Independencia, Plaza Bolívar, Plaza Herrera, and Plaza de Francia—each reflect the grandeur of Spanish colonial architecture. Plaza de la Independencia, the first and only square for many centuries, is surrounded by significant buildings such as the Metropolitan Cathedral and the Museum of the Canal. Plaza Bolívar and Plaza Herrera were built on land left empty after the 1756 fires, while Plaza de Francia honours the French pioneers of the Panama Canal’s construction.

Las Bóvedas, a system of dungeons that were part of the old city walls, now serve as a picturesque promenade overlooking the Pacific Ocean. This site, which once played a crucial role in the city’s defence, is a testament to the historical significance of Panama City’s colonial era.

The Impact of the Panama Canal

The Panama Canal has profoundly influenced Panama City’s architecture. Its construction brought an influx of American architectural styles to the Canal Zone, blending tropical and North American designs which appealed to the American workforce. This period saw the rise of functional yet stylish buildings that catered to a growing, diverse population.

The Canal’s completion spurred economic growth, leading to an architectural boom in the early 20th century. This era saw the introduction of Art Nouveau and other international styles to the city, reflecting Panama’s increasing connectivity and global influences.

Preservation Efforts: Safeguarding the Past

Efforts to preserve Panama City’s historical architecture are ongoing, particularly in Casco Viejo, the city’s oldest district. Declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1997, Casco Viejo has undergone extensive restoration to maintain its colonial-era buildings and unique charm.

Key restoration projects focus on maintaining the architectural integrity of significant landmarks such as La Iglesia de la Merced, as well as the preservation of public spaces such as the Plaza de la Independencia to ensure that the historical essence of the city remains intact. These efforts not only protect Panama City’s rich architectural heritage but also promote cultural tourism, making the city a vibrant destination for visitors globally.

Panama City’s architectural evolution is a testament to its rich history and forward-looking spirit. From its colonial history to its modern skyscrapers, the city offers a unique blend of past and present, making it a fascinating destination for architectural enthusiasts worldwide. Whether it’s the colonial charm of Casco Viejo or the modernist flair of buildings like the BioMuseo and F&F Tower, Panama City’s architecture continues to evolve, telling the story of a city that honours its heritage while embracing the future.


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